The Norwegian government has established a goal that all Norwegian students who wish to do some of their studies abroad should be given this opportunity. Norway has already begun implementing new and fundamental changes in its higher education system, much along the lines of the higher education sector in the USA. According to the new plan, academic credits and financial rewards will be directly; Norwegian institutions will gain financially from increasing the number of students and total credits taken at its institutions. This is important in the present situation where there is an absolute decline in the number of Norwegian students studying in the USA.
Maritime Research and Technology
Both in the United States, and later also in Norway, there has been established a program which appoints "Centers of Excellence". Ten centers have been appointed in Norway, and one of these deals with the maritime area. Its main players are MARINTEK and NTNU.The latter has already established an agreement of cooperation with an american "Center of Excellence":MIT. This cooperation will, among other things, be visible through stipends and post dok. studies.
A possibility one could take into further consideration, might be to tie more and closer transnational bonds between these types of research institutions in the US and Norway. The research that constitutes the agreement between MARINTEK and MIT is mainly aimed at basic research. However, with Statoil, DnV, and Hydro as the main economic contributors and also as members of the leading committee, one can expect additional research with a focus on the business sector
With the increasing importance of seafood for human health, our continued dependence on marine resources as a basic source of food and livelihood for coastal communities, and a greater awareness of impacts and interactions in the marine environment, Norway and the United States share a common objective to achieve sustainable productivity from the ocean while protecting the long-term viability of marine ecosystems. It is particularly important to encourage cooperation and exchange between relevant science institutions in Norway and the United States conserning Biology and Management of Living Marine Resources, and especially concerning Large Marine Ecosystems Research, Assessment and Management.
Space Research and Technology
Develop the area of Space Research and Technology into a major arena of collaboration between Norway and the US. Collaboration exists or should be developed at four different levels:
- Agency to Agency
- Researcher to researcher
Energy Research and Technology
Norway is heavily dependent on its energy resources and further development of these resources. The oil and gas business is Norway’s largest industry in terms of value. So far only one fifth of our oil and gas resources have been produced. We might produce oil and gas for another 100 years and beyond if we can foster capabilities that enable us to develop the oil and gas resources more efficiently. Along with oil price developments, this is, critically dependent on investment and further technological development with respect to enhanced oil recovery and deep-water technology. We also have a high focus on environment and sustainability both in production and consumption of energy.
Other Key Research Areas
- Medicine and Biotechnology
- Environmental Research and Technology
- Information and Communication Technologies
- Nano Technology
- Social Sciences
- Material Technology
- To increase the number of undergraduate (B.A.) and graduate (M.A. and Doctoral) degrees taken by Norwegian students in the USA;
- To increase the number of part-time (semester or one-year) Norwegian students studying in the USA at the undergraduate and graduate levels, with stronger emphasis on the graduate level. In order to facilitate part-time exchanges of American students to Norway, Norwegian institutions need to set up either semester or one-year study abroad programs in English, equal to a full semester credit load.
- To increase opportunities for institution-to-institution exchanges, either for a semester, but preferably for a year, from Norway to the USA and from USA to Norway. Expand and improve exchanges under the Fulbright program.
- To provide opportunity for the exchange of university/college administrators (e.g. Office of International Affairs, Registrar, etc.).
- Increase flexibility in the provision of financial assistance. The State Loan Fund’s regulations should be reviewed regarding study exchanges in the USA.
Industry should be invited to play a stronger role in higher education through internships.
- Post-doctoral mobility/education training should be encouraged.
- USA and Canada should be seen as one region under this initiative.
Deficiency of current cooperation
- Need for a national strategy regarding higher education in Norway.
- More aggressive marketing in Norway to promote US higher education opportunities.
- An information hub/centre needs to be set up in Norway to provide information for students and institutions about opportunities in the USA and Canada. Centres of excellence in academic fields should be outlined in order to find the most suitable fit for students and institutions in both countries.
Primary and secondary actors
In Norway the primary actors will be the Ministry of Education and Norwegian Council for Higher Education. Individual universities, university colleges, private institutions and organizations like Fulbright, Norwegian-American Foundation, etc. should also be invited to participate.
In the U.S. the primary actors are the individual colleges and universities and each has to be negotiated with individually. Of relevance also are authorities and interest groups dealing with higher education, e.g. NAFSA (Association of International Educators), AAU (Association of American Universities), Council of Graduate Studies, U.S. State Department (Fulbright program), etc.
Maritime Research and Technology
MARINTEK has had several projects with the USCG, and for the time being they are working on a project related to Deepwater. This project has been calculated to 17 mrd.USD over a thirty year period, and is aimed at renewing the USCG`s planes and ships. The contract went to the partnership between Lockheed Martin/Northrop Grumman.
Specifically, the MARINTEK project evolves around landing smaller vessels inside a larger mother ship. This would especially be relevant with the exchange of personell, and would also allocate greater simplicity to rescue operations. MARINTEK works with model simulation and design, and hopes to cooperate with the companies that succeed in getting the contract for the construction of this ship concept. MARINTEK maintains very good relations with the Northrop Grummon/Avondale company.
MARINTEK also hopes to be able to participate in follow-up projects, such as the developing of simulation models, training programs, and "operational guidance" systems. As a result of their current position as advisors for the USCG on this project, they have an advantage over other possible competitiors. It is therefore reasonable to assume that MARINTEK have good chances of landing substantial contracts in this field.The Norwegian Navy is assumably also interested in this consept, something which might open up for the possibility of cooperation. MARINTEK is hoping to get more projects related to the Deepwater program. Some of the possibilities they are looking closer at are the development of ships that are adjusted to difficult and low sea areas, ships which can transport freight and goods in stormy weather, and also the development of ships as bases for unmanned planes.
The US Navy´s fleet program
The US Navy also has a program which is aimed at the renewal/extention of their fleet, although it is not yet at the level of the USCG´s Deepwater program. The US Navy program might, however, also imply substantial possibilities for norwegian actors. The program is principally aimed at 28-30 destroyers, something which is not one of MARINTEK´s specialities. Norway has, however, played a central role with its KNM shield. Further exports/development contracts with norwegian maritime equipment exporters will constitute an opportunity which might be well worth to have a closer look at.
Mutual trade agreements
There is a substantial mutual trade agreement related to the new Norwegian navy ship investment, where Locheed Martin is the main supplier of weapon systems. It would be preferable to fill the mutual trade agreement with technology contracts, an act that makes the latter a heavier contract than other types of contracts. Mutual trade agreements might be relevant in relation with Deepwater contracts and US Navy´s fleet programs.
In Houston there has been established a "DeepStar"- cooperation, in which all the oil companies have contributed with resources to a research fond (except from Exxon, which just recently withdrew). The goal is to prepare the offshore business for the drilling of oil on deeper water in The Mexican Gulf. This will among other places, will be based on floating production ships(FPSO) in the Gulf. A "Management Committee" will decide on which projects will receive the resources. MARINTEK and the DnV have participated in the DeepStar-colloboration, and this far MARINTEK has landed three minor contracts(which together calculates 3 mill NOK) related to design (a.o.t. "Global Performance of Deepwater Structures-Post Model Test Study and Guideline Development"). Norwegian actors with experience from the conditions in the North Sea assumably have good chances in the future development of the GOM.
The Maritime Infrastructure
The american Maritime Administration (Marad) recently published a detailed report considering maritime R&D in the US:
The report points to the need to further develop the american maritime infrastructure, as this has been heavily utilized over the last couple of years. A doubling in the need for transportation is also expected to incur by 2020. The report further points out the fact that maritime research has been slowly declining compared to (research on) other means of transportation. The Marad report argues positively for a more coordinated research participation on a national level, and a split of costs between the federal and state administrations, and the private sector. The report also calls for a better coordination policy with other areas of research. For the time being it is uncertain if the american authorities will allocate more resources to maritime research, which would comply with the Marad report. It might, however, be well worth to study the report as it points out relevant issues that can be valuable in the mapping of future possibilities.
Over a period of three years, Wallenius Wilhelmsen (WW) will participate in research on logistic organized by the UN. According to Bengt Ramberg, who is responsible for logistic in the WW, it would be of great interest to turn the attention towards the US who have several good research institutions on the issue (among other places Stanford and Michigan). A possible starting point could be that the WW have several ships under the american flag which transport sivilian material for the military. The WW have also bought 40% of the logistic division at Renault, which has substantial activity directed towards the US.
Deficiency of Current Cooperation
There is a mutual lack of understanding in our two countries for certain parts of the respective policies for the management of living marine resources. We agree in principle, but in practice we disagree when it comes to the application of the principles to the whole ecosystem. It is anticipated that closer cooperation and dialog will contribute to a better understanding of the respective views. A broader acceptance in the scientific fora is crucial for finding understanding on the political level.
Increased cooperation on fish farming should also be encouraged. Closer cooperation in this field could be beneficial to both countries, and in the marine aquaculture especially to the United States as Norway has a broader experice in this field. Such cooperation could contribute to finding a basis for solving the problems we currently have concerning trade in fresh salmon.
Primary and secondary actors
In Norway the primary actor will be the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Bergen. Other institutions and scientists at the universities should also be encouraged to participate.
In the United States the primary actors is the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) of the United States National Marine Fisheries Servic (NMFS). Other science centers within NMFS as well as scientists at the universities should also be encouraged to participate.
Relative size of resources required
The institutions will need some funding for arranging workshops or symposia, exchange of people (extended visits of scientists) and regular meetings for coordination. Such support is most important in the beginning, until these activities have been included in the regular budgets of the respective institutions.
Space Research and Technology
Agency to agency level
- Norwegian Space Centre (NSC) has close links with NASA and NOAA on ground stations, i.e. SvalSat. These successful relationships are being developed and should be used as prime examples of how to collaborate.
- NSC and NASA, together with research groups in both countries, have collaborated on a series of sounding rocket experiments. Current funds on both sides are meager and means to increase these should be sought.
- An institutional relationship should be developed to link the Norwegian based infrastructure and the scientific groups closer to the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) program. This high profile NASA program overlaps with >80% of Norwegian space science activities.
- Increased utilization within space of offset generated by large military contracts. This has until now not been very successful, mainly due to a lack of interest from US industry and possibly problems related to export control regulations.
- The possibility of establishing collaborative agreements between the major Norwegian universities and key US educational institutions in the field of space science and technology should be investigated.
- The Norwegian centre for space related education (NAROM) should establish contact with relevant US institutions.
Researcher to researcher
- The good relations existing between researchers at UiO, UiB and NDRE must be developed to allow for more exchange of scientist and Ph.D. level students. The funds available for this in the Research Council of Norway are inadequate and alternative sources should be sought.
In general the will to collaborate exits; however, fund availability on the Norwegian side poses a serious limitation to scientific collaboration. The current export control regime also creates serious problems at all levels involving collaboration on space related technology. This is a major problem on the industrial side, but the current regime also creates problems at the level of basic science. A major effort should be started to explore the possibility of removing several of the involved technologies from the current US control regime.
Norway has a long tradition of space related research. Due to its northern location Norwegian scientists started studying the aurora and thereby space physics very early on. Birkelands innovating aurora experiments and his conclusion is one of the highlights in Norwegian science history. The Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics (ITA), in fact created with help from the Rockefeller Foundation, has developed a close collaboration with US research institutions as well as with NASA. There is also a strong link between Norwegian and US scientists using both satellites and sounding rockets as experimental platforms in the study of space plasma. Even if the Norwegian Space Centre (NSC) was created to handle Norway’s membership in ESA, it has directly and through its subsidiaries developed a strong collaborative link with US institutions like NASA and NOAA.
The Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) established in 1962 is owned by NSC and collaborates closely with NASA. ARR owns and operates SvalRak, the launch facility at Svalbard. SvalRak is very attractive for NASA, both as operator and for scientific collaboration. The combination of SvalRak and ARR is NASA's most important launch sites outside the US. Tromsø Satellite Station (TSS) was established in 1967 and has delivered many services for NASA. TSS is delivering data from the Canadian satellite Radasat to US users. The ground station SvalSat was established through collaboration between NRS and NASA. Today SvalSat provides services to NASA and ESA, EUMSAT, NOAA. By 2005 SvalSat will be the worlds leading ground station for polar orbiting satellites. At Svalbard there are also extensive ground based facilities that view the near-Earth space environment. Both Norwegian and international facilities are in place, including several radars operated by EISCAT, a European consortium.
A large number (>700) of sounding rockets have been launched from ARR, many in collaboration with NASA. The latest successful launch was in July 2002 and several more are planned for the future. ITA established a close collaboration with US Naval Research Laboratory on the HRTS experiment (sounding rockets from White Sands and Space shuttle). The University of Bergen built the detectors for the X-ray camera (PIXIE) and the University of Oslo collaborates with US groups on electric field measurements on NASA's POLAR satellite. The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment delivered some of the instrumentation on Cassini. Norway is strongly involved in 3 instruments in the ESA/NASA mission Solar and Heliospheric Observatory launched in 1995. Hardware to SOHO was delivered by several Norwegian companies and ITA contributed with operational staff at the SOHO operation facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. ITA is furthermore one of the major users of scientific data from the SOHO mission. There was a planned collaboration for two future solar missions, SOLAR B and SDO, which are part of a NASA new initiative "Living with a Star". The Solar B development is going ahead but the recent non-selection of the two instruments with Norwegian participation on SDO was a heavy blow for future collaboration.
There is extended use of NASA and NOAA satellites for research by Norway. Norway is one of the leading users of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data for operational real time ocean surveillance. This expertise was built up thanks to NDRE's early access to SEASAT (1979) data. Svalbard serves as a downlink station for scientific data from the NASA TERRA and Aqua satellites. NSC is studying the possibility to pipe more of these data directly to domestic users from the downlink station. The recent selection of a contractor for the ground segment of the next generation meteorological satellites will deepen the relationship between the US and Norway.
Energy Research and Technology
Technology and innovation in oil and gas is becoming increasingly important in energy supply overall. According to IEA one- percent increase in enhanced recovery of oil represents additional oil supply volumes equal to more than 2 years of world oil demand. The recent White Paper on the Norwegian Oil and Gas Activities describes two scenarios for the development of the Norwegian Continental Shelf - the decline scenario and the long-term scenario. In the decline scenario the oil and gas industry and the authorities are satisfied with what is accomplished so far, and the industry will stagnate in 10-20 years. The alternative is the long-term scenario with oil and gas production in the next 100 years. The oil and gas cluster in Norway has initiated a national technology strategy, OG 21, Oil and Gas in the 21st Century, to lay foundations for stronger technological development in oil and gas exploration and production in Norway.
Norway has high energy consumption per capita and per unit GDP. The energy demand is expected to increase. How can our energy demand be met? Today almost 100% of our electricity comes from hydropower. We do not foresee any new major hydropower projects. Demand growth has to be met through higher energy efficiency in production as well as in consumption, new renewable energy sources and electricity from "CO2 free "gas power plants. Technology in all of these areas needs to be developed further to become economically in use. We would also need to focus on the transportation sector and alternative fuels and/or motor technology.
Focusing on energy there are many differences between USA and Norway but there are also great deal of similarities. Energy is of outmost importance to both the US and Norwegian economy. Areas mentioned above should be of great interest to US as well as Norway and co-operation in these fields should be of mutual interest.
Norwegian oil companies and the supply industry have been in the forefront and developed offshore technology in the world class. Participants in the Gulf of Mexico and The Norwegian Continental Shelf will face some of the same challenges with respect to enhanced oil recovery and deep-water technology. Through co-operation technology could be further developed in the Gulf of Mexico, where the conditions are less harsh and the costs are lower. When developed it can be implemented in the North Sea or other deep-water areas were both Norwegian and US companies operate. Norwegian companies and other companies active in the North Sea have experience from focusing on CO2 handling and sequestration. Technology development in this area could be transferred to other sectors (i.e. power generation) of the economy and should therefore have a broader interest than just the petroleum industry.
Although we have abundant resources of oil and gas as well as hydropower, Norway gives high priority in increasing the energy efficiency as well as the development of renewable and more environmentally friendly and sustainable energy consumption. This is also important to US although the reason might be somewhat more divided. As important as environmental sound energy consumption is security of energy supplies which mean relying less on energy import and more on domestically produced energy. Norway and US share the interest in developing and commercialise technology in this area. As a small country it should be beneficiary to Norway to co-operate in developing technology within these areas. It is probably a higher incentive (easier to commercialise) to develop the technology in a bigger market like the US. As an energy country Norway can contribute through our experience and knowledge in this area.